FRIEND PEACE HOUSE 同志社布哇寮 (1936 Yuasa version)

FRIEND PEACE HOUSE, DOSHISHA UNIVERSITY, KYOTO (1936 Morikawa version)


Temporary Number

WC2


ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR THIS DESIGN
Currently Documented Edition Signature and Seal Markings:
Edition I: 楽山 Raku-zan + Seal W + Rakusan Tsuchiya [cursive romaji signature]

[For illustration of seals, see the Seals article.]

Design History:
WC2 was created in 1936 as the result of a special commission by Mr. Masao Morikawa. Mr. Morikawa was the Secretary to the President of Doshisha University in Kyoto. He was both a long-time personal friend and an important and influential patron of Rakusan. Morikawa was to select a design to be adapted as a woodblock-printed winter holiday greeting card from a series of sample paintings. Morikawa chose LK3-11, but it required slight modification to the composition and the addition of more colors. The resultant revised painting WC2-0 (LK3-12) was the eventual model for the woodblock print WC2. WC2 remains the only winter card woodblock print design for which the direct original painting prototype has been located. This painting is more than twice the size of its woodblock print, which is unusual since all other Rakusan prints are the same size as their documented models. This difference is no doubt due to the very small size of the finished winter card prints. WC2 is the only winter card print in a horizontal format; all the others are vertical.

The image area includes a primary woodblock-printed 'Rakusan Tsuchiya' cursive romaji signature at lower left incorporated as part of the design. In carving WC2 Rakusan omitted the man passing at lower left in the WC2-0 painting in order to provide a place for this signature.

The original (and only) distribution of the WC2 print was as the cover of a winter holiday greeting card sent out in 1936 in two versions. Morikawa had commissioned the original card for his superior, Mr. Hachiro Yuasa, the President of Doshisha University. The interior of the card sent out by Yuasa has a machine-printed dated holiday greeting and a brief history of the Friend Peace House building. Since Rakusan had no machine-printing facilities of his own, the text would have been pre-printed by a commercial printer and then brought to Rakusan to attach the print to the cover.

On the right inside page:
MR. HACHIRO YUASA SENDS CHRISTMAS GREETINGS AND THE BEST WISHES FOR THE NEW YEAR
Office of the President Doshisha University 1936 Kyoto, Japan

On the left inside page:
FRIEND PEACE HOUSE
同志社布哇寮 [doushisha hawai ryou, 'Doshisha Hawaii Dormitory']
ESTABLISHED BY DR. AND MRS. THEODORE RICHARDS OF HONOLULU, HAWAII ON THE EAST OF THE HISTORIC OLD IMPERIAL PALACE OF KYOTO; MAINTAINED UNDER JOINT AUSPICES OF THE FRIEND PEACE SCHOLARSHIP COMMITTEE OF HONOLULU AND DOSHISHA UNIVERSITY; AND DEDICATED TO THE PROMOTION OF CHRISTIAN INTERNATIONAL FRIENDSHIP AMONG THE YOUTH OF THE FAR EAST.

Morikawa adapted copies of WC2 for his personal use by removing the preprinted interior message pages used by Yuasa and then adding his own handwritten inscriptions to the woodblock print. The two personalized Morikawa inscriptions are written in an informal style of all-capital block letters:

In black ink at top left within the design area:
SEASON’S GREETINGS FROM THE MORIKAWAS 1936

In the bottom margin in gray ink:
FRIEND PEACE HOUSE, DOSHISHA UNIVERSITY, KYOTO

Both versions come from the same first edition printing, and there is no evidence WC2 was ever reprinted. Friend Peace House is not a familar tourist destination, and there would have been little subsequent demand for these cards as souvenirs. As a result, copies of WC2 of either version are rarely encountered. (Note that the copies of the two versions used as illustrations here were photographed in different collections at different times and under different conditions, and the colors of ink and paper are actually exactly the same in both.)

Copies in Public Collections:
Edition I (Yuasa version): Doshisha Archives Center, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan. [not illustrated online].

Edition I (Morikawa version): Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY, USA; X1078.1-.9. [not illustrated online].

Location Illustrated:
Friend Peace House, フレンドピースハウス, furendo piisu hausu, is a historic building owned by Doshisha University which houses international students and foundation offices. (Its official name is in Basic English, a simplified version of English sometimes taught by early missionary teachers.) Friend Peace House has since 1936 also been called 布哇寮, ハワイ寮, hawai ryou, 'Hawaii Dormitory'. (In 1936 (and until the end of World War II) the Japanese names for many foreign places (including Hawaii) were written with kanji. Since the war those names are conventionally written in katakana.)

The building was originally built as a home for a missionary family in the late 19th century across the street from the eastern edge of Kyoto Imperial Park. All of the Rakusan views of this building are of the more elegant west entrance which faces the park. The property also extends to the next street to the east, and today there are entrances from both streets. In 1936 Doshisha University decided to sell the building and its large lot (which is a few blocks distant from the main Imadegawa campus of the university). However, Dr. and Mrs. Richards bought the property with the idea of renovating it and presenting it back to the university. They paid for the renovation, repurposing, and renaming of the building and provided an endowment from their foundation. The Richards' 1936 gift commemorated both the 25th anniversary of the Friend Peace Foundation of Hawaii and also the 60th anniversary of the founding of Doshisha University. The building was renovated again in 1997 and was registered as a Material Cultural Asset on March 2, 2006. The Richards Friend Peace Scholarship is still offered to Christian students in the Asia-Pacific region through the Hawaii Conference Foundation.

As part of his Doshisha duties, Morikawa handled much of the dealings with foreign visitors and potential donors. The magnitude of the Richards' gift (and the need to advertise and acknowledge it) no doubt led Morikawa to chose this subject for the official 1936 card.

Doshisha University, 同志社大学, doushisha daigaku, established in 1875 is one of the oldest private universities in Japan. Another of its buildings figures in winter card WC3B.


Related Designs:
Other designs of Friend Peace House:
WC2-0 (LK3-12) LK3-11

Other Doshisha University locations:
WC3B