Version 1 Version 2

[Sanjo Bridge, Kyoto]

Temporary Number


Currently Documented Signature and Seal Markings:
Version 1 and Version 2: 楽山画 Raku-zan Ga + Seal N

[Inclusion of Rakusan's name and address in woodblock-printed cursive romaji is interpreted as advertising copy rather than as an artwork signature form.]

[For illustration of seals, see the Seals article.]

Design History:
The designation "WC4" is a temporary legacy numbering. The order of publication of the undated winter cards is conjectural and is therefore subject to change with additional information. Although the exact year of the publication of "WC4" is undocumented, it was most probably first produced circa 1931-1934. The woodblock print "WC4" was modeled on an original painting on paper about two or three times larger whose current location is unknown. The design was composed in a traditional style, but with the twist of the participants being giga (cartoon) frogs instead of people. The frog passenger is smoking a pipe (like the frog in another Rakusan woodblock print, SP1; see below).

The composition of "WC4" incorporates several peculiar features. There are evident spelling errors in at least three different writing systems: Japanese kanji, Romanized Japanese (romaji), and English.

The version 1 copies of "WC4" are distinguished by having a title printed in gray ink in the lower margin. This title is misspelled and reads SANJOBRIDGI KYOTO (for what should be SANJO BRIDGE, KYOTO). It is so precisely carved that it is at first difficult to recognize that it is actually printed using a wooden block rather than a machine press. Comparisons with other examples of small-capital text suggest that it is based on one of the styles of Rakusan’s own romaji handwriting. (Note that "WC5" and WC1935 have similarly printed titles which suggests all three designs might have been created about the same time.)

Recognizing that the title was misspelled, Rakusan omitted it when he reprinted version 2 of "WC4". The two versions of "WC4" are also characterized by different color palettes. This is most evident in the background color, where version 1 has pale blue and version 2 has pale gray. All of the other colors are also slightly different. Version 2 also has an additional impression in white ink, adding falling snow, snow on the ground, and brightening the other white areas including the wheel spokes and roof lines. Both examples illustrated above are of direct scans made under identical conditions and show these differences precisely.

Oddly, after World War II Rakusan ignored the misspelling and reprinted large numbers of both versions of "WC4" for sale or as gifts to visitors.

In the lower right within the image area of the design are two lozenges containing kanji text. The orange lozenge on the right (intended to be read first) reads: 三条大橋, san-jou oo-hashi, 'Sanjo Bridge', which is the Japanese version of the title of the design (see also below). Tentatively, the green lozenge on the left reads: 紀光之圖, kikou no zu. However, if, as the context suggests, the pronunciation kikou is intended to mean ‘traveler’s journal’ or ‘journey book’, then it is misspelled; and the kanji 紀光 should be rewritten 紀行. With that correction a loose, informal translation would be something like: ‘Picture [brought back] from traveling [as a remembrance of the occasion] to be put in a souvenir album’; e.g. 'Sightseeing Picture’, ‘Traveler’s Picture’, or perhaps better, ‘Souvenir Picture’.

Along the lower margin and also within the image area Rakusan has included his address and a rendition of his name in Western style. The text is woodblock-printed in black ink and is in Rakusan's romaji cursive handwriting:
56 Kitamachi-komatubara Kyoto
Rakusan Tuchiya

All of Rakusan's early writing is entirely in traditional Japanese scripts, and at least into the late 1940s he continued to struggle to adopt a consistent system of writing using romaji. The nihon-shiki romaji transcription system uses the spellings ‘Komatubara’ and ‘Tutiya’ for those names. Later Rakusan mostly used the more English-friendly Hepburn romaji transcription system where these names are spelled ‘Komatsubara’ and ‘Tsuchiya’. On "WC4" Rakusan uses the nihon-shiki spelling ‘Komatubara’ but spelled his family name "Tuchiya" which is a hybrid of the two systems and correct in neither one. "WC4" is currently the only known example of Rakusan romaji writing where he used anything other than the Hepburn ‘Tsuchiya’ spelling for his family name. However, the nihon-shiki spelling ‘Komatubara’ occurs also in the 1933 Publicity Flyer and in several handwritten souvenir print dedications in 1947-1948.

Because Rakusan was always keen to market his artwork from his home studio, he needed to find ways to provide his address to visitors. Rakusan had moved to his permanent new location in November of 1931. The number of errors in "WC4" suggest that this design was an early attempt to publicize this new address in a new, decorative, and amusing format. If so, then "WC4" (and by extension "WC5" and WC1935) would be the first winter cards and date from within the interval between the winters of 1931 and at the latest 1935.

Early dates for these cards also suits the current interpretation of the development of Rakusan seal use. In and after 1937 (including "WC7" and the post World War II edition II of "WC5") Rakusan used seal B2 on winter cards.

If "WC4" was (like the later winter cards) also commissioned by Mr. Masao Morikawa, the Secretary to the President of Doshisha University in Kyoto, a very early date is unlikely. Until the middle of 1932 Morikawa, both a long-time friend and an important and influential patron, had been away from Japan for several years studying at the University of Chicago. However, the errors (which Morikawa likely would have caught) suggest that "WC4" could have been a project Rakusan completed on his own.

Location Illustrated:
The Sanjo Bridge (Sanjo Ohashi), 三条大橋, sanjou oo-hashi, lit. 'third large-bridge', has been one of the primary crossings of the Kamo River, 鴨川, kamo gawa, in SE Kyoto for many hundreds of years. It takes its name from Sanjo-dori, 三条大通り, sanjou douri, lit. 'third avenue', which crosses the bridge. Rakusan's depictions of this famous crossing are all of the former concrete bridge which was in use from by at least 1910 until 1950 (when it was replaced by the current structure).

Species Illustrated:
Although color-modified, stylized, and rendered as giga (cartoons), the frogs can be identified as Japanese Brown Frog, Rana japonica, ニホンアカガエル, 日本赤蛙, nihon aka-gaeru, lit. 'Japanese red frog'. Rakusan often illustrated these giga frogs as green or orange rather than their natural brownish color.

Related Designs:

Other designs of Sanjo Bridge in winter: [The paintings sections are currently under construction. Subpages for items marked with [*] not yet available.]
*LK3-5 *LK3-6 *LK3-7

Other designs of Sanjo Bridge in summer: [The paintings sections are currently under construction. Subpages for items marked with [*] not yet available.]
*LK1-11 *LK2-8

Other designs of giga frogs: